We identified as monoracial those who chose the black1African-American categorization and reclassified those indicat- ing blacklother into biracial and ethnic identified.
For each, any participation was coded as "1," otherwise "0," and summed to create one measure of participation in general campus activities. With more than 1, languages spoken and many different religions and tribes, Africa is rich in cultural diversity.
The study is an effort to tease out discrete factors that influence "assimilation" -- a term often interpreted as pejorative -- of minority groups into the majority population. Please direct all correspondence to Sandra S. However, such a construc- tion, while capturing affective response to all blacks, does not take into consideration context, nor does it account for how closeness relates to day-to-day experiences.
In addition, we collected in-depth interviews with a smaller sample of respondents who completed the mail-in survey. Even so, when it comes to marriage, the color line remains strong. A second variable, number of black-specified student activities, measures participation in only those five activities specific to black students.
Those who responded that half or some of their friends were black. Finally, in-depth interviews are used as an analytic tool providing context and insight into the relationships uncovered. We propose that when assessing closeness, low to middle SES blacks tend to view themselves as socio- economically similar to the majority of other blacks, whom they see as predominantly from low to middle socioeconomic backgrounds.
In addition, they may have values, attitudes, interests, and issues that identify them as a group distinct from the native-born black community. Third, we draw from in- depth interviews to provide context and insight into the relationships we uncover.
Edgar Epps, Alford Young, Jr. For those raised in predominantly white envi- ronments, accustomed to being one of only a few blacks and generally unaccustomed to defining their existence primarily in terms of race, ex- pectations from other blacks in terms of values, attitudes, style of dress, speech, and so on, may make race a more salient feature of their existence racial marriages, black-white marriages totaled 65, and 12, babies were born to black-white couples.
However, as the trend toward biracial identification grows, so too does intraracial tension among blacks, as some within the black community ostracize self-identified biracials whom they perceive as downplaying their blackness in favor of their whiteness to gain special treatment from whites Sebring ; Bowles ; Daniel Breaking away from previous marriage and cohabitation studies that treated the U.
Celebrated December 26th through January 1st, Kwanzaa is a unique African American celebration with focus on the traditional African values of family, community responsibility, commerce, and self-improvement. While there may have been less cause to question assumptions of close- ness and homogeneity before the Civil Rights movement, when fewer cultural and socioeconomic distinctions could be made Wilson ; Jay- nes and Williams ; Farleyone can question the extent to which these assumptions hold today given shifts in the demography of black America.
Whites generally compliment them on their accents, and white employers tend to prefer employees from the ranks of the foreign- rather than the native-born Woldemikael ; Waters; Newman African American homes also have remarkable diversity, with notable differences across regions of the U.
However, we continue to find the distinction between these concepts both valid and meaningful, but we encourage further examination of this question. Instead, we draw from network conceptualizations of closeness that emphasize tie strength and intimacy, and we created a measure based on four dimensions of closeness: Within these disparate areas of study, researchers presume that blacks hold similar values, attitudes, and experiences, share a collective perception of themselves as a social unit, have a qualitatively different culture and dissimilar life experiences compared to whites, and are dependent on each other for need satisfaction and social interaction, particularly to stave off feelings of racial alienation, isolation, and oppression.
Lichter, professor of policy analysis and management and director of the Bronfenbrenner Life Course Center at Cornell. First, we investigate the extent to which black students share values, attitudes, and experiences and rely on each other for need satisfaction and social interaction.
The article examines the extent to which black students feel close to other black students on campus, rely on one another for need satisfaction and social interaction, and share similar values, experiences, and attitudes. In so doing, what both of these areas of research has done is to provide a unidimensional picture of blacks, one in which they are aggregated and the nature of their intraracial relations and diversity obscured.
To predict closeness to other black students, we employ logistic regression to examine the effect of racial and ethnic identification, socioeconomic status, and preadult integrative experiences, controlling for gender and year in school.
Due in large part to the Hart-Cellar Immigration Reform Act ofthe number of foreign- born blacks had swelled to more than 1. Because it could be argued that socially distant black students partic- ipate less in minority-oriented and black-specified activities because they are alienated from the general campus community and therefore less likely to participate in all campus activities, we also examined participation in general campus activities and off-campus activities.
Those who report never having dated interracially are com- pared to those who have occasionally to frequently dated interracially.
This decision was made after preliminary analysis of the data in- dicated that closeness to other black students was significantly correlated with race and ethnic identification and racial composition of friendship networks on campus.
Current estimates of black-white biracials are thought to be anywhere fromto 5 million persons, although many suspect that even these figures underestimate the true population of mixed-race people Root Second, consistent with the first trend described above, the proportion of black Americans who have had interracial con- tact prior to adulthood has grown due to the increase in the number living in and attending racially integrated or predominantly white neighbor- hoods and schools Massey and Denton ; Farley and Frey ; Frey and Farley ; Sigelman et al.
The reasons for these tensions are not mutually exclusive. Social distance is hypothesized to exist among those of higher SES because of their greater integration within mainstream America Allen et al.
Middle- and upper-middle-class black students may view themselves as being fairly similar to other blacks on campus and thus may report greater feelings of closeness.An analysis of interracial diversity and relations among african americans Posted on: November 30th, by No Comments Of increasing class divisions among African Americans and An analysis of the definition of cheat a generational an essay on the pro nazi vichy regime.
Among the findings: Blacks born on the U.S.
mainland (African-Americans) are more likely to cohabit with and marry whites than are newcomers from the West Indies, Africa and Puerto Rico, who are more likely to marry within their group or to marry African-Americans, although marriage rates between these two groups remain very low. An Analysis of Interracial Diversity and Relations Among African-Americans PAGES 1.
WORDS View Full Essay. More essays like this: racial identity, african americans, black students, closeness of students. racial identity, african americans, black students, closeness of students.
Intraracial Diversity and Relations among African-Americans: Closeness among Black Students at a Predominantly White University1. Sandra S. Smith University of Michigan. Individuals of African origin comprise approximately 14% of the population in the United States. The term African American refers to individuals who are residents of the U.S.A., usually raised here, who are of African ancestry, whereas the term Black is more general and can refer to anyone of African ancestry, including recent immigrants.
Intraracial Diversity and Relations among African-Americans: Closeness among Black Students at a Predominantly White University1 which focus almost exclusively on interracial relations and diversity by examining feelings of closeness and distance.Download